Wild South East

a nature blog of south-east Victoria, mostly Gippsland


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Gippsland’s Reptiles Part 3- Dragons and Monitors

This is part 3 of a photo essay on Gippsland’s unique reptiles, this time to include dragon and monitor (goanna) lizards.

Although not highly diverse as much of the rest of Australia, particularly the arid parts of the continent, Gippsland’s dragon lizards (family Agamidae) include a handful of interesting species. Their distribution extends throughout the Gippsland region and each has specific habitat and diet requirements.

On the coastal plain of Gippsland you are likely to come across the well camouflaged Jacky Lizard Amphibolurus muricatus, particularly in the drier woodlands and coastal parts of the region where it can be found on the ground or perched on branches. It is found in the coast and ranges of SE Australia from South Australia to south east QLD.

Jacky Dragon-Amphibolurus muricatus. Open Red Gum woodland, Fernbank,Vic. Sept 2013 (3)

Jacky Dragon. Fernbank, Vic.

 

 

Jacky Dragon- Amphibolurus muricatus. Dutson Downs, Vic. Heathy woodland. 16.9.2015 (1)

This species is relatively common in open woodlands and coastal scrub and can be easy to miss when walking through these areas as it blends in well with its surroundings. Growing to a total length of almost 400mm it is very similar to the much smaller Mountain Dragon Rankinia diemensis which also occurs in the region. Jacky Dragons can be identified from this species by the inside of their mouths being bright yellow as well as having no enlarged spines at the sides of the tail base. Mountain Dragon’s mouth is blue inside and they have small spines at the sides of the tail base.

Jacky Dragons have a peculiar way of communicating with each other which include complex movements such as head bobbing, arm waving, push ups, body rocking, tail flicks and colour changes. When disturbed they sometimes run upright on their strong back legs to escape at speed.

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The Mountain Dragon, as its name suggests, is typically found in high country but can also extend to the foothills and some parts of the nearby coastal plain.

Mountain Dragon- Rankinia diemensis. Mitchell River NP, Vic. Dry rainforest gully in leaf litter.  29-12-09

The Mountain Dragon showing its brilliant camouflage. Mitchell River NP, Vic.

As with the Jacky Dragon they are very well camouflaged and difficult to detect due to their ability to change their colour to their surroundings.  Mountain Dragons feed almost primarily on small insects found in leaf litter and low vegetation of dry woodlands. I have often seen them in the high country perched on the top of small termite mounds feeding on termites. This is a small dragon and can grow to a total length of up to 200mm.

Mountain Dragon- Rankinia diemensis. Near Ben Cruachan, N of Heyfield, Vic. 31-12-2011 (2)

Mountain Dragon feeding on termites. Note the way it changes colour to its surroundings.

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When travelling along rivers and large streams in Gippsland you are often aware of frequent splashes in the water. This is often due to the presence of the large Gippsland Water Dragon Intellagama lesueurii howittii, a subspecies of the Eastern Water Dragon which is common along the east coast of Australia and is a semi-aquatic species.

Gippsland Water Dragon- Physignathus lesueurii howittii. Yallourn, Vic.  23-2-10 (2)

Male Gippsland Water Dragon. Yallourn, Vic

 

Gippsland Water Dragon- Physignathus lesueurii howittii. Yallourn, Vic.  23-2-10 (7)

Gippsland Water Dragon- Physignathus lesueurii howittii. Yallourn, Vic.  23-2-10 (13)

Female or juvenile Water Dragon. Yallourn, Vic

Gippsland Water Dragons inhabit rivers, streams and sometimes rocky intertidal areas of the coast. They frequently perch on rocks, logs and branches overhanging the water and will often use these for a quick access to the water to hunt or escape predators, similar to the freshwater turtle. They have a strong swimming ability and is reputed to be able to remain underwater for over an hour! It feeds on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic species which includes insects, aquatic organisms, small vertebrates such as frogs, lizards and mice as well as fruits and berries.

Gippsland Water Dragon- Physignathus lesueurii howittii. Yallourn, Vic.  5-2-10 (3)

Water Dragons look almost like a swimming snake when they take to the water.

Gippsland Water Dragon males can grow to almost 1m in length and weight up to 1kg. Males have a brilliant colour pattern in the breeding season which includes a bright orange and green blotched neck and green overall body colour with striping on the tail. The Eastern Water Dragon male typically has a reddish pattern on the neck and chest, a dark patch behind the eye and more prominent stripes and the tail and back. It also tends to lack the green body colour of the Gippsland subspecies. Several feral populations of the Eastern Water Dragon have been found in South Australia and Victoria, including Gippsland (Yallourn), presumably escapees from reptile breeders.

Gippsland water dragon- Physignathus lesueurii howittii. (male) Yallourn North along Latrobe River on willow. 18-3-10 (4)

An Eastern Water Dragon male showing red throat and belly and vivid patterns on the face and back. This is a member of a ‘feral’ population at Yallourn, Vic.

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The Lace Monitor Varanus varius is a large species of goanna found throughout Gippsland but is becoming increasingly rare in the western part of the region. As such it is listed as threatened in these parts. In central and eastern Gippsland, including the high country, Lace Monitors are still quite common in forest and woodland and will often hang around campsites or rest stops looking for scraps. Individual can have a large home range of up to 1-2 km² in summer but will remain almost dormant in winter. They are semi-arboreal and will often climb trees to raid nests of birds and mammals and will often use large hollows to shelter in.

Lace Monitor- Varanus varius. Avon-Mt Hedrick Scenic Reserve, N of Heyfield, Vic. Woodland. 29-12-2011.

Lace Monitors are very adept at climbing using their large claws. Heyfield, Vic.

Lace Monitors are one of the biggest goannas in Australia and males can grow to a total length of over 2m. Their name comes from the network of stripes on the body and neck which can vary in colour and pattern. The typical overall colour is dark grey with a complex series of creamy-yellow spots often merging into stripes. The neck and underparts are cream with dark grey stripes or blotches. Some individuals have a blue tinge to the body, especially the throat.

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Lace Monitor showing blue colouration to the throat and face. Buchan, Vic

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Another species, Gould’s Sand-Monitor Varanus gouldii, has historically been recorded from far east Gippsland but this hasn’t been seen for decades and it apparently wasn’t a common species in this area.

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Dragons and monitors probably evolved on the same lineage as snakes very early in reptile evolution in the Cretaceous period. In fact, monitors are the only lizard to share the forked tongue with snakes which they use to smell scents and it is thought that these two are closely related.

P1110239

Characteristic forked tongue of the monitor lizards

 

Although not as common as Gippsland’s skinks, the dragons and monitors of the region are always a pleasure to see.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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A reptile fortnight

Finally we managed to get a handful of warm to hot days in the last two weeks but it was only fleeting as the temperatures have dropped again, typical of this year’s unusually mild summer.

My passion for reptiles has resulted in me studying the weather forecasts every day hoping for a warm sunny day to bring them out. The last two weeks definitely lived up to my expectations.

The first of the hot days we were working for a client in wet forest near Trafalgar. While walking through an open section of the forest where sun was streaming through I came across a fully grown Tiger Snake Notechis scutatus. It was partially hidden in vegetation but I managed to snap some photos of it’s head. It seemed unperturbed by me and sat there while I composed my shots before finally slithering off slowly.

Tiger Snake

Tiger Snake

I’ve noticed in the past with very large, fully grown snakes that they are less frightened by people than younger snakes. One of the biggest Tiger Snakes I’ve ever seen was while working for Parks Vic in Wilson’s Promontory and the body of this snake was as thick as my arm! When we accidentally startled it (and ourselves!) it just raised it’s head and looked at us knowing fully well it could protect itself. We were sure it yawned at us too.

In the same forest near Trafalgar the Southern Water Skink Eulamprus tympanum seemed to be common on logs in open areas. This is a very inquisitive species and I managed to get within 10cm or so from it’s head with my camera. Although it’s called a Water Skink they are often found in areas a long way from any water body. They can, however, swim quite well.

Southern Water Skink

Southern Water Skink

Also in an open area of this same forest was a Blotched Blue-tongue Tiliqua nigrolutea.

Blotched Blue-tongue

Blotched Blue-tongue

I did mange to find a bright rusty-coloured individual near Bairnsdale last week but I didn’t have my camera with me.

While working for another client yesterday to the west of Golden Beach in Banksia woodland and dry heathy woodland I was surprised at the amount of reptiles around. We have a joke at this site that whenever we say “Gee, we haven’t seen a goanna for a while” we usually see one within a few minutes. This happened to be the case yesterday where we saw not one but two after we said this!

Lace Monitor

Lace Monitor

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This old boy was in an open paddock next to the woodland and was not worried about us approaching it one bit (it actually was falling asleep at one stage while I was photographing it!) They are known as Lace or Varied Monitors Varanus varius and many populations, especially in west Gippsland, are disappearing and as such are listed as vulnerable in Victoria.

In an area of Banksia woodland this little fella was found, a young Jacky Dragon Amphibolurus muricatus. This species can be common in areas of dry forests, woodland and heath.

Young Jacky Dragon

Young Jacky Dragon

This last one is a common species along the coastal fringe of Gippsland. The Eastern Three-lined Skink Acritoscincus duperreyi often has a pinkish-orange throat in the spring breeding season.  This one was found in coastal dune scrub west of Wonthaggi.

Eastern Three-lined Skink

Eastern Three-lined Skink